Amino acids are large complex molecules that form the building blocks of our bodies. Amino acids are produced by reactions that result in 50:50 mixtures of right-handed and left-handed amino acids. These amino acids are like identical right and left-handed gloves. The amino acids in all living things, however, are made up of almost all left-handed molecules. No natural or unguided process can separate these left and right-handed molecules from each other. So how did life come to select almost exclusively left-handed forms when the first cell formed? The mathematical probability that chance processes could produce merely one tiny protein molecule with only left-handed amino acids for even the simplest form of life is virtually zero.
Nucleotides, other molecules necessary for life, also come in the right and left-handed forms. Yet nucleotides are only found in right-handed form within living things! Since nucleotides and amino acids are both necessary for life, they must have appeared together in the first living cell.
The probability of life forming from a random mixture of chemicals while only using left-handed amino acids and only right-handed nucleotides requires an intelligent designer.
In The Beginning, 7th ed., p. 14
"In the beginning you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment...." - Psalm 102:25-26
The existence of life depends upon a substance which chemists call the universal solvent. This magnificent molecule, with its many unique properties, is ordinary water. Unlike almost all other liquids which contract upon changing from liquid to solid, water stops contracting and starts expanding at 40 degrees centigrade. This results in solid water (ice) being less dense (lighter) than liquid water. Thus lakes and rivers freeze from the top down instead of from the bottom up. If lakes froze from the bottom up, life within every lake in a freezing climate would be destroyed.
Water also has a unique ability to conduct electricity at just the right resistance to make the processes of life possible within cells. In addition, its unique surface tension insulates some animals, while its inability to mix with body oils insulates other animals by keeping them dry. Water is the only one of the special substances that God created to enhance and enable life.
From the properties of the smallest molecule to the complex interrelated systems of life, the entire universe has every appearance of being designed to work together in perfect harmony. This is one of many ways in which creation provides a vivid testimony to our Creator's attention to the details of life.
Letting God Create Your Day. Vol. 4, p.49
Come and see what God has done, how awesome his works in man's behalf! - Psalm 66:5
As we learn more about the chemistry of life, the similarity of living cells to complex machines is becoming increasingly obvious. Even at the microscopic level, scientists have found that the intricate parts of each cell are fashioned like irreducibly complex machines. Although these machines are made of proteins instead of metal, their complexity is proof that they could only have been produced by an intelligent designer.
The simple mousetrap is an example of an irreducibly complex machine. This machine consists of a platform, spring, hammer, catch, and hold-down latch-bar. The absence of any one of these five components will turn this machine into a piece of useless junk. Thus, this functioning machine is "irreducibly complex." It is this interdependence of the individual parts which makes it obvious that the simple mousetrap has a designer.
Living things are made from far more sophisticated irreducible complex parts. For instance, within certain single-celled organisms there are complex structures called cilia. These spinning fibers allow the organism to move about. Scientists have discovered that cilia have the same irreducibly complex interdependence of parts as an electric motor. The cilia spin within sealed shafts as charged particles are alternatively repelled and attracted in the same way the rotor and stator of an elector motor work. If any part of the cilia are removed, they will cease to function. Only the spiritually blind can deny God's handiwork as we discover tiny electric motors placed inside of microscopic organisms!
Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, p. 39-73
Know that the LORD is God. It is he who made us, and we are his... -Psalm 100:3
Even in the plant world, there is no such thing as "simple life." The voodoo lily, for example, was designed to raise its temperature by 25 degrees while it releases a scent that attracts beetles to pollinate it. There are many complex chemical reactions that take place within the lily. Some are specifically designed to raise the lily's temperature. The elevated temperature then increases the rate of evaporation of other chemicals designed to attract pollinating insects.
The chemicals which evaporate from the lily happen to be the same ones found in rotting meat. The smell of rotting meat is what attracts the pollinating beetles to the flowers. As the attracted beetles crawl around inside the flower looking for food, they get covered with pollen and spread the pollen to the next lily. How did the lily "learn" to make this exact scent? It could only have happened by design, possibly after the Fall of mankind, when radical changes occurred throughout the plant and animal kingdoms.
Specific chemical reactions with a specific purpose require careful design and planning. It does not make logical sense to assume the voodoo lily's complex chemical reactions evolved by chance.
Letting God Create Your Day, Vol. 3, p. 44
For you are great and do marvelous deeds; you alone are God. - Psalm 86: 10
Biologists have discovered a growing list of creatures which freeze solidly in the winter, only to thaw out and resume life in the spring. Three species of tree frogs have been added to this list. As cold fall weather approaches, these northern tree frogs burrow under the dead leaves in the forest. Scientists found that up to 35% of the frogs' body fluids freeze when they are cooled to several degrees below freezing. How do these frogs survive death, when freezing even part of our bodies would result in the loss of skin, fingers, or limbs?
Scientists have discovered that these frogs produce glycerol, which acts like antifreeze within their bodies. Even when it gets so cold that their blood freezes, this chemical prevents ice crystals from forming in a way that destroys cells. This ability indicates design and instantaneous creation, rather than evolution. The frogs could never have survived if the ability to resist freezing (and tolerate antifreeze chemicals) developed a step at a time, rather than the frog being created with all of these abilities in place.
Letting God Create Your Day, Vol. 3, p. 76
"But ask the animals, and they will teach you.... Which of all these does not know that the hand of the LORD has done this?" - Job 12: 7, 9
The bola spider doesn't weave a web, but catches insects by making a special silk thread with a sticky glob on the end (called a bola). The bola spider then generates the same scent as the female moth in order to attract the male moth. When a male moth comes close to investigate the scent, the resourceful spider casts its silken thread toward the unsuspecting prey and catches it on the sticky glob.
This spider's thread is so elastic it can stretch up to 600%, while sticky enough to snag a struggling moth. Chemists who have studied this spider's glue have yet to duplicate its adhesive properties. The spider allows the moth to struggle while it conserves its own energy. Once the moth has tired, it reels in its catch and wraps it in silk for storage until it is hungry. The bola spider is so efficient that it is not unusual for one spider to catch up to eight moths per night.
One species is normally not able to detect the scents of another species. One wonders how the bola spider could have evolved the ability to exactly duplicate the female moth's chemistry. This scent along with the ability to accurately produce and cast a bola must have evolved simultaneously. Otherwise this spider would have been extinct long before its unique abilities to catch its prey were perfected. The direct creation of these unique abilities, with their unique functions is the logical answer.
It is because of the fallen creation that each type of creature, just like mankind, must struggle for their existence. Yet even in the struggle, God provides.
Letting God Create your Day, Vol. 3, p. 89
These all look to you to give them their food at the proper time. - Psalm 104: 27
God said He used the "dust of the ground" to make man. This is a remarkable statement, because it is not at all obvious. Rocks seem to be composed of totally different substances than human flesh. The biblical statement "dust of the ground" actually conveys the thought of the smallest particles of the earth. In modern terminology, the thought would mean the most basic chemical substances such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, calcium, etc. In reality, both human flesh and dust are indeed made from a few dozen basic chemical elements.
Modern science has verified this straightforward statement of the Bible. How could this information have been known and recorded by the ancient writers of the Bible unless it was revealed to them by God?
The Genesis Record, p. 85
... the LORD God formed the man from the dust of the ground.... - Genesis 2: 7
The earth's air is made up of about 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases.
Chemical reactions within plants and in our upper atmosphere maintain this exact balance of 21% oxygen to 0.03% carbon dioxide. For life to exist, this balance must have been maintained from the beginning! If oxygen levels were lower by only 4%, animals could not breathe. If oxygen levels were higher by as little as 4%, increased fires and extensive oxidation reactions would make life on Earth difficult- if not impossible. With even a slight change of the carbon dioxide level, the earth's temperature and plant growth rates would be radically affected.
It would seem that the very composition of the air we breathe has been designed specifically for our benefit. It takes incredible faith to believe this could have happened by chance.
It Couldn't Just Happen, p. 32
Come and see what God has done, how awesome his works in man's behalf! - Psalm 66: 5
Living organisms survive by using thousands of chemicals, each involved in a long series of complex chemical reactions.
For example, the clotting of blood involves over twenty distinct individual reactions, each of which is absolutely vital to heal a wound. However, clotting could be fatal if it happens too soon or too late. Omitting even one of these twenty sequential chemical reactions, inserting an unwanted step, or altering the timing of a step would result in death. If even one reaction is missing, all of the other marvelous steps that had previously performed flawlessly would be in vain.
In Michael Behe's excellent book, Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, this long sequence of reactions is called an irreducibly complex process. If even one step or one chemical reaction is out of place, the whole complex system doesn't work and the organism bleeds to death. These complex chemicals and reaction had to have been created as an intricate, highly integrated unit from the very beginning.
Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, p. 74-97
Yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live. -1 Corinthians 8:6