Many great scientists have challenged the billion-year claims of the evolutionary time scale. One is Lord Kelvin, the scientist whose brilliant thermodynamic analysis gave us the absolute temperature scale that bears his name. Kelvin's numerous papers and scientific research pointed out many errors of the long-age concepts held by uniformitarian geologists of his day. Kelvin rejected the ancient time table of Earth history, not because of its contradiction to the Bible but because of its conflict with physics.
Kelvin's studies dealt with the both high temperature of the earth's core and the slowing of the earth's rate of rotation as evidence for a young earth. He calculated that if the earth had been around for over five billion years, its initial rate of rotation would have been at leas twice its present rate (the days being only 12 hours long). This increased rotational speed would have increased the centrifugal force four times, causing the ancient earth to bulge much greater than is presently found at the equator. There is no physical evidence that the earth's rotational speed was ever this fast.
Lord Kelvin strongly opposed the evolutionary pre suppositions of an extremely old earth using science to justify his belief in a young earth. No one has ever been able to contradict his physics.
Evolution in the Light of Scripture, Science, and sense, p. 96-97
The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens. - Proverbs 3:19 KJV
Radiometric dating methods have become an important basis for the claim that the earth is billions of years old. Allof radiometric methods are based on three assumptions:
These assumptions are not directly testable, and therefore no dating method is strictly scientific. It is impossible for anyone to know the initial components of the system or to prove that the decay rate has not changed.
The concept of having a process take place over a long period of time without interference is not reasonable. It is also totally unreasonable to claim that elements have not been added to or taken away from the system over millions of years of time. The greatest problem with the reliability of radiometric dating methods is the extreme variability of results. A wide range of dates is often obtained. The date is only "accepted" if it falls within the range which makes evolution seem possible.
If the resulting age is not what is expected, it is ignored as a "bad or contaminated" sample. So how can we be so confident that "good" samples (those giving ages we expected) were not also contaminated?
The Evidence for Creation, p. 34-35
...Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world? - 1 Corinthians 1:20
Carbon 14 (C14) is a dating method used to measure how long ago a sample of previously living tissue died. As long as any organism is alive, it maintains a fairly constant concentration of C14 with its environment. Once it dies, the radioactive C14 starts to decay; and half of the C 14 disappears every 5,730 years. If an artifact is found that has one-half of the modern level of C14, it is assumed to be 5,730 years old. Scientists have recently found that the amount of radioactive carbon in the earth's atmosphere is not constant.
The C14 concentration can be affected by things such as the total mass of plant life on earth, the earth's changing magnetic field, volcanic activity, solar flare activity on the sun, nuclear tests made in the past several decades, collisions of asteroids or meteorites with the earth, etc. For example, tree rings from all over the world had an increased variability in C14 level following the 1908 asteroid explosion in Tunguska, Siberia.
Even more important, the concentration of C14 in living things would have changed dramatically right after the worldwide Flood as the total amount of vegetation on the planet readjusted to new conditions. C14 dating is totally unreliable for any date beyond about 4,000 years, because the assumptions of the technique deny any major change in conditions. It ignores the effect of the worldwide Flood throughout the calculation. As with all scientific endeavors, if your assumptions are wrong, your conclusions will also be wrong.
Evidence for Creation, 6. 41-45
Beare lest anyone cheat you through philosophy and empty deceit, according to the tradition of men, according to the basic principles of the world, and not according to Christ. - Colossians 2:8 NKJV
If the sun were closer, we would burn up; if further away, we would freeze. If our atmosphere was thinner, the meteors that now harmlessly burn up would constantly bombard us. If the moon was not precisely its current size and distance, the ocean tides would flood the land twice a day. If the continental shelf was smaller, the oceans would be deeper near shore. This would lower the oxygen level in the atmosphere, making life much more difficult.
A study of the ecological processes in nature (water, oxygen balance, seasons, day/night cycles, etc.) show that they must be maintained in delicate balance or Earth would just be another lifeless planet. The forces, speeds, and distances that hold our planets within our solar system, galaxy, and universe are all in delicate balance. The mechanisms that cause our bodies to function and reproduce are all finely tuned. The very constants that hold atoms together and keep the universe from flying apart or implode are all in perfect balance. These are just a few examples which point to god's perfect "maintenance plan." These and thousands of other variables seem to be held in precise balance to make both the earth and our universe a perfect habitat for human live. It is totally outside the realm of reason to assume that all of these perfectly balanced systems just happened by chance.
God: coming Face to Face with His Majesty, p. 78
If it were his intention and he withdrew his spirit and breathe, all mankind would perish together and man would return to dust. -Job 345:14-15
Most students assume that because a theory is taught in textbooks-especially theories as widely believed as quantum physics, special relativity, or the big bang- it must be true. Yet how many people understand how these concepts explain reality or the many unsolved problem with each theory? If we are perfectly honest with ourselves, we really don't even understand what an atom is, so how can we state that we know where, when, and how the atom was created?
The implication of this model are staggering. If it is correct, then everything physical is an electromagnetic field created by moving positive and negative charges. In essence, physical reality may not be made out of tangible matter at all. This presents several interesting questions-who created the moving charges, what is a "charge", and why are they in constant motion? Perhaps our physical world is really just an electromagnetic field simulating solid objects.
But who is maintaining the simulation?
He is before all things, and by Him all things hold together. - Colossians 1:17
The second law of thermodynamics states that all things naturally move from a higher to a lower state of order. A law of science is only established when no exceptions are found after years of study. Albert Einstein called the second law of thermodynamics, "the premier law of science" upon which all other processes are based. Scientists are finding that the entire universe, including the sun and the stars, are subject to this law. All processes are slowly winding down.
Letting God Create Your Day, Vol. 3, p.96
...for the creation was subjected to futility... We know that the whole creation has been groaning in travail.... -Romans 8:20, 22 RSV
As radioactive elements decay, helium atoms are deposited into rock crystals. Helium atoms are so small that they easily leak through the rock structure and escape into the atmosphere. The rate at which helium leaks out of the rocks has been recently measured, and all of the helium produced by radioactive decay should have left the rocks if these formations were millions of years old. Yet the rock still contains much of the helium produced by this decay process. This helium is still locked into the rocks because there hasn't been enough time for it to escape from the rocks. This means that the radioactive decay could not have happened billions of years ago. Apparently there was a burst of radioactive decay within the last 10,000 years, possibly corresponding to when the earth was created, during the worldwide flood, or both. These are the types of scientific observations which make creation science so exciting.
One of the primary evidences used to justify the belief in a five-billion-year-old earth is the fact that long-age radioactive isotopes have decayed into daughter elements which we find today within the crystals of rocks (like granite). During the decay of many radioactive isotopes, helium nuclei are given off (which almost instantaneously change to extremely stable helium atoms). At current decay rates, this process should have taken billions of years to reach the current level. This dating technique is presented as the premier proof that the earth is billions of years old. What follows is the rest of the story.
ICR Impact Article #352, Oct. 2002
Prove all things; hold fast that which is good. - 1 Thessalonians 5: 21 KJV
God said in His Word that "He imparted weight to the wind." Man did not discover that air had weight until 1643. Evangelista Torricelli, Galileo's student, built the first barometer to measure the pressure and weight of air.
The pressure exerted by the movement of individual air molecules is quite small; but our atmosphere is over 100 miles thick, and the total pressure of gravity pulling all of this air downward is quite significant. Although we cannot feel the pressure (except when the air is moving), air is pressing in on us with a force of 14.7 pounds per square inch. The total air pressure pushing onto the outside surface of a typical human body exceeds 20,000 pounds of force! The only reason we are not instantly squashed is that the same pressure exists inside each of our cells pushing outward.
How could the author of Job have known that air has weight 3,000 years before modern science proved this fact?
Myths and Miracles, p. 10
For he looketh to the ends of the earth, and seeth under the whole heaven; To make the weight for the winds; and he weigheth the waters by measure.
In the Bible, God says that He "upholds" all things. The New Testament Greek word is commonly translated as, uphold means to support or to maintain. The implication of this word being in the present tense is that it is happening continuously. In other words, at this very moment, God is sustaining everything in the universe. If He would cease to sustain, we would cease to exist.
If the negatively charged electron were not kept moving, it would drop toward the positively charged nucleus and every atom in the universe would be destroyed. What keeps these electrons moving? We can model and describe the movement, but really don't know what keeps them moving.
All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. If the force holding the nucleus of these atoms together were reduced, the positively charged protons in the nucleus (which strongly repel each other) would instantaneously fly apart. Positively charged particles repel each other in the same way the positive ends of two bar magnets repel each other. It is still not completely understood why positively charted protons in the nucleus stay close together. Although scientist have called the force which holds the protons in the nucleus by various names, including "gluons" and "the strong nuclear force," they really don't understand what it is or how it operates.
Things do not just happen in our universe by accident. God holds the universe together, just like He stated in His word.
God: coming Face to Face with His Majesty, p. 78
... [He] upholds all things by the word of His power... -Hebrews 1:30 NAS
Radiohalos are rings of color which form in rock crystals when bits of radioactive elements decay. These discolored rings give very specific patterns which are indicative of the radioactive decay sequence happening within the rock crystal. Radiohalos have been found in granite, biotite, fluorite, diamond and other minerals and gems. They also provide undisputable evidence that enormous layers of rock which form the lowest crust of our planet formed and cooled almost instantaneously.
Polonium is a radioactive element which decays within seconds to months of its formation. It leaves very distinctive discolored rings when this decay happens inside of granite and other materials. These discolorations had to have formed after the granite was cool, because temperatures higher than 140 degrees Centigrade destroy the discoloration. In some cases the polonium decays in less than a second and others it is gone within months. The only way that radiohalos could exist within granite is if these massive rock layers, as much as a mile thick, also formed and cooled almost instantly.
Critics claim that the polonium cane from other radioactive elements which were deposited millions of years after the rock crystals formed and cooled. There is no evidence, however, that the tiny bits of radioactive polonium came from any previous form of radioactive material. Nor is there evidence to show how the radioactive material could have entered the rock. The polonium had to be present as the rock formed.
The existence of polonium radiohalos in granite indicate that the granite was created as a solid, just we see it now, and did not form from molten material.
Creation's Tiny Mystery, p. 11-37
"Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding." -Job 38:4 NKJV
Scientists have been measuring the earth's magnetic field since 1835. Indirect measurements show that the overall strength of the earth's magnetic field has consistently decreased with time. It is the rate at which the earth's magnetic field is decreasing which is astounding. It has lost 50% of its strength in the past 1,400 years.
This is not a problem as long as the earth is relatively young; but if the earth is much older than 10,000 years, no life could have existed on earth, because the magnetic field would have been so strong. If the earth is almost five billion years old, why is its magnetic field less than 10,000 years old? Could the earth be much younger than we have been led to believe?
Observations of rapid reversals of the earth's field are also a problem for scientists who believe in an earth of great age. Various observations have shown that in the past, the earth's magnetic field has reversed over a very short time period (days to months). Catastrophic upheavals in the earth's molten core during a worldwide flood can easily explain these rapid reversals. No other mechanism can adequately explain the short time period reported for these reversals.
These magnetic field reversals would have caused an even more rapid decay of total field strength, indicating a maximum possible age for the earth of even less than 10,000 years.
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Creationism, "Physical Mechanism for Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field during the Flood," Vol. II, 1991
"The almighty is beyond our reach and exalted in power..." -Job 37:23
The little publicized fact of radiocarbon dating is that all organic matter has a "background level" of radiocarbon. To understand the incredible implications of this fact, you must understand how radiocarbon dating works.
As nitrogen in our upper atmosphere is bombarded by cosmic rays, some of it is turned into radioactive carbon-14 (C14) molecules which are uniformly dispersed throughout all living things. Once an organism dies, it stops taking in C14. It begins to deteriorate at a rate of 50% every 5,730 years. A million years later there could not be a single atom of C14 remaining.
Radiocarbon labs have found that essentially every previously living organic molecule has approximately 0.3% C14 that we find in today's atmosphere. Coal, natural gas, oil, shells, even unfossilized dinosaur bones still have measurable levels of C14. At the known C14 deterioration rate, for 0.3% C14 to be left in organic molecules, they must be less than 46,000 years old.
They could not possible be millions of years old.
Radiocarbon experts have taken extreme measures to eliminate all possible sources of modern contamination, yet they have been totally unsuccessful in eliminating this "inherent" C14.
The implication is staggering. Since radioactive carbon is still present in every buried organic molecule (all of which are assumed to be many millions of years old), these molecules must have been alive quite recently. This inescapable conclusion from the data collected from radiocarbon labs around the world is not publicized, because scientists are trained to believe that the earth is billions of years old.
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Creationism, Measurable C14 in fossilized Organic Materials..., p. 127-142
[Instruct people] not to occupy themselves with myths and endless genealogies that promote speculation rather than the divine training... -1 Timothy 4:4 RSV
Many people believe that the universe is infinitely old and has been around forever. They believe that the universe does not have a creator, because the universe is all there is. The fact that the universe is not uniform in temperature disproves this belief.
One of the most fundamental laws of nature is that heat always flows from hot to cold. In other words, left to itself, a hot object eventually cools down. Yet our universe is full of hot objects, If the universe were indefinitely old, the temperature throughout the universe should be uniform. Several logical deductions can be drawn from this observation:
In the Beginning, 7th ed., p. 24
-since the temperature of the universe is not uniform, the universe is not infinitely old.
O LORD, you are my God; I will exalt you and praise your name. for in perfect faithfulness you have done marvelous things, things planned long ago.